Blood types: a historical gallery

An extra from Why do we have blood types?

A selection of images showing the study of blood groups throughout history.

 

CC-BY: Wellcome Library, London

James Blundell. Stipple engraving by J Cochran, 1838.

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Three plates showing different processes of transfusing blood between man and dog. From J S Elsholtz’s Clysmatica nova, 1665.

CC-BY: Wellcome Library, London

Blood transfusion between man and animal. From Paolo Manfredi’s Ragguaglio degl’esperimenti … circa la nuova operatione della trasfusione del sangue da individuo ad individuo, ed in bruti ed in huomini, 1668.

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A patient having blood let from his right arm, while the blood of a dog is transfused into his left arm. Engraving, c.1692.

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Blood corpuscles of a human, camel and frog. Daguerreotype photomicrograph from Alfred Donne and Leon Foucault’s Cours de microscopie, 1845.

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Blood transfusion. From J Roussel’s ‘La transfusion. 1re série. 35 opérations’, Archives générales de médecine, 1876.

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A plate showing versions blood transfusion used during childbirth, including instruments. From Gustave-Joseph Alphonse Witkowski’s Histoire des accouchements, 1887.

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(Left) Normal blood (Giemsa stain). From R H B Gradwohl’s Clinical Laboratory Methods and Diagnosis, 1843. (Right) Blood smear showing acute lymphatic leukaemia (Jenner’s stain). From G. Lovell Gulland and Alexander Goodall’s The Blood, 1912.

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Jubé-type blood transfusion apparatus, made in Paris c.1900–45. The double-ended blood transfusion apparatus meant that the blood recipient and donor could be hooked up to the same device. The whole transfusion process took 30 minutes.The apparatus was invented by Dr Louis Jubé, whose name is printed on the lid of the tin. The inscription translates as ‘Royal Italian Army’. It is believed that this object was used by Sir John Smith Knox Boyd (1891–1981), a British bacteriologist. He served with the Royal Army Medical Corps during the Second World War and was responsible for blood transfusion and vaccination services in the Middle East.

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The four blood groups. From Laurence H Snyder’s Blood Grouping in Relation to Clinical and Legal Medicine, 1929.

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Karl Landsteiner in 1930.

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Photographs of blood transfusion apparatus, designed originally by James Blundell, made by Savigny & Co. c.1950s.

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Microscopic view of clotted blood vessels in the inflamed kidney of a 56-year-old woman with acute glomerulonephritis. Watercolours by Barbara E Nicholson, 1946.

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A blood transfusion bottle, capped, with associated parts. From the First World War onwards it became possible to store blood, and by the Second World War blood banks were being used. The first stage of blood storage saw a single donation stored in a bottle such as this. This bottle was supplied to the Blood Transfusion Service, which was founded in 1946 to coordinate collecting and storing blood for the nation. The bottle was made in England in 1978.

CC-BY: University of Edinburgh/Wellcome Images

A type of white blood cell known as a polymorphonuclear leucocyte, or neutrophil. Neutrophils are mainly involved in ingesting and destroying small organisms, such as bacteria. Colour-enhanced transmission electron microscope image, c.1980–2002.

Blood types: a historical gallery slideshow